Tuesday 18 October 2016

Category AA - the Rhine in early publications

Early Rhine maps - before the advent of the strip map approach

Sattler (1995) began his listing with the first "bird's-eye" map of the Rhine by Elisabeth v. Adlerflycht. This, quite rightly, is considered the inspiration for all Rhine strip maps and is a marvellous work of art in its own right. However, I have decided to introduce an extra category - AA. Here I have chosen to select half a dozen examples of the sort of work which was not only commonly available before 1825/1835 but also continued to be produced alongside the new development of the leporello map. The books I have chosen to illustrate were typical of the "Rhine genre" at the time. This is only a small selection of what was available.

Early in the nineteenth century travel on the Rhine was much as it had been for centuries before, travelers boarded boats of varying size and shape to travel up the river, and these were pulled by horses and men walking along special paths created on the banks of the river, the so-called Treidelschifffahrt, and every ounce of muscle-power was required.. To travel in the opposite direction required no horse power, but the currents were tricky, but sail and oars sufficed. As Holzhäuser points out for a freight barge of 1.5 tons, ten to twelve horses would be required, or seven to eight men could replace each horse. For individual travelers there were the water diligences. These had`been introduced in the middle of the 1800s and were fitted with rooms with glass windows as well as railings and benches on the deck. These commuted regularly between Mainz and Koeln. It would take two days to journey down river and three days to make the return trip. However, a large number of travelers never made the trip in both directions. During the eighteenth and into the nineteenth centuries many graduates used the holiday periods, or the time after graduating to travel to Italy and Greece to wander among the sites of antiquity. The socalled Grand Tour would often take them through France and later a trip along the Rhine river became a popular alternative route. Stories and illustrations were published making use of the latest advances in book illustration. Copper engraving and etching was becoming big business and among the many travelers along the Rhine were talented amateur artists and poets from the British Isles. On their return they would often turn their sketches into full illustrations and have these published. So it was that people like R Batty, T Cogan, Bulwer Lytton, A H Payne, William England and W Tombleson drew what they saw as they travelled the river and turned these into sucessful publications on their return.
Books of sketches of the Rhine together with travel biographies had been on the market since at least 1788; The Reverend John Gardnor and his nelphew, Richard,  made their "Grand Tour" circa 1778 with their artistic work being published in Views taken on and near the river Rhine. This new breed of guide gave interesting insights into the history and the sites worth seeing along the Rhine river and in the nearby vicinity.
Over the next fifty years or so a wealth of new books appeared with engravings, often drawn by British artists, and accompanied by copious text explaining the sights to be seen in the vein of Gardnor´s Views. Some of the guides related to larger sections of the Grand Tour, the journey recommended every post-graduate student should take from the shores of England to Italy, e.g. Carr´s A Tour Through Holland, or concentrated wholly on the banks of the River Rhine such as Tombleson´s Views of the Rhine. The earlier guides were often issued with no map, a number included one or more maps of the Rhine and some, e.g. Tombleson, included a Rhine Panorama map in many of its subsequent issues.

This section deals with the forerunners to the Rhine panoramas and books printed in the purely guide book fashion. 

AA. 1. Carr – 1807

AA. 2. Engelmann – 1822

AA. 3. Baedeker – 1835

AA. 4. Guide Richard – 1842

AA. 5. Hendschel – 1845

AA. 6. Guinot, Eugène – 1847

AA. 7. Dampfschifffahrt Fahrplan - 1894

AA. 1. John Carr 1807

Sir John Carr toured through the Rhine area in 1806 and his sketches were published, together with copious notes on habits, customs, legends and information on the sights along the way, in 1807. There were 20 views, of which 10 were views within Germany from Dusseldorf to Darmstadt. 
John Carr was a Devonian who studied to be a barrister but became quite famous in Great Britain for his travel books. He travelled extensively throughout western Europe between 1803 and 1809 and recorded his impressions. He was knighted as a result of his book on Ireland and died in 1832 (Wikipedia).                                     Schmitt 35.

Book title

A Tour Through Holland, along the right and the left banks of the Rhine, to the south of Germany, in the Autumn of 1806.

Book by Sir John Carr and published in London by Richard Phillips. 1807. Has an attractive map of the Rhine; although only plotting the course of the river with its bends there is an attempt at providing a certain amount of detail regarding sites, e.g. castles, to be seen on the way.

Map title

A Map of the Rhine from Dusseldorf to Mainz or Mayence. Imprint below: London. Published May 21, 1807by R Phillips, New Bridge Street. There is a signature, below right: Neele, sc, Strand.
Compass point (Ee) and also the longitudes and latitudes of Dusseldorf and Mainz.  Size 140 x 240 mm.


AA. 2. Engelmann / Schreiber / Hess   1822

A moderately successful writer it was his work recounting his travels on the Rhine that made Aloys Schreiber well-known. His Handbook für Reisenden am Rhein was translated into French and became popular reading for the early Rhine tourists. He is credited with being a forerunner (in Germany) to Karl Baedeker. He was born in Baden in southwestern Germany in October 1761 and died there in 1841 (Wikipedia).
His first Rhine work appeared as Malerische Ansichten des Rheins in 1806. The Handbook seems to have followed in 1816 with a second edition circa 1818, both published by Engelmann.

Book title

Handbuch für Reisende am Rhein von Schaffhausen bis Holland, in die schönsten anliegenden Gegenden und an die dortigen Heilquellen.

Book by Aloys Schreiber and published in Heidelberg by Joseph Engelmann. Third Edition.
Title Page: Dritte, von neuem sehr verbesserte und bedeutend vermehrte Auflage. Mit zwei Karten gezeichnet von Prof. Bruhl (Zweiter durchaus redivirte und vermehrter Abdruck).

Map titles
1. Uncoloured engraved map shows the Rhine from Wesel (top) to Mannheim (below).
Size 485 x 365 mm.
Attractive vignette with title (Ca): DER RHEIN VON MANNHEIM BIS WESEL NEBST DER MOSEL BIS NACH TRIER. Publisher’s imprint within the vignette but slightly apart: Heidelberg, Verlag von Joseph Engelmann. 1822. Surveyor’s and engraver’s signatures: Gezeichnet von H. Bruhl, Prof. der Mathematik zu Maynz (within title vignette) and Gest. von L Hess zu Jena (EeOS).

2. Uncoloured engraved map shows the Rhine from Mannheim (top) to Schaffhausen (below right) with Basel almost centrally bottom. Attractive vignette with title (Ae): DER RHEIN VON SCHAFFHAUSEN BIS MANNHEIM nebst den Berg und Rheinstraßen zu beiden Seiten des Strohms. Publisher’s imprint within the vignette but slightly apart: Heidelberg, von Verlag von Joseph Engelmann. 1822 (in panel bottom left). Engraver’s signature: Gest. v. L Hess z. J. (EeOS). Within the map Bemerkung with notes (Eb).

Both maps have two scale bars: 10 (German) Miles = 135 mm: 15 (French) Lieues = 120 mm. Also a note under each map: Zweite durchaus revidierte Auflage (CeOS). Schmitt 217-218.

 Map 1 title

AA. 3. Baedeker  from 1835

Carl Baedeker (1801-1859) developed his passion for publishing guide books possibly after using a guide published by John Murray in London. Baedeker often credited Murray with being his inspiration. Badedeker established his guide book enterprise in the city of Coblenz just as the growing tourist trade was beginning to establish itself, especially here on the central portion of the Rhine. His first guide books were dedicated to the Rhine river and the countryside around; but it was not long before the Baedeker company was producing guides for all sorts of reas.
Carl or, more correctly, Karl Baedeker founded his pubishing company on 1st July 1827 in Coblenz. Five years later he was able to buy out the publishing business of Friedrich Röhling who, in 1828 had published one of the earliest Rhine guides Rheinreise von Mainz bis Cöln, Handbuch für Schnellreisende. This work was written by the professor and historian J A Klein. While preparing the second edition for publication in 1835 Karl Baedeker rewrote and expanded the Rheinreise to such a degree that one can generally say that the result - Rheinreise von Mainz bis Köln - is actually the first Baedeker tourist guidbook. This publicattion was so successful that within only 12 years it was reissued three times.

I am offering a later English edition of Baedeker dated 1900 only as an example of Baedeker's prolific output. The Rhine from Rotterdam to Constance. Handbook for Travellers. 14th Edition Revised. 1900. London, Dulau and Co.

Early Baedeker cover

Cover 1900 Title page 1900

Example of maps

AA. 4. Guides-Richard  from 1842

Richard was Jean-Marie-Vincent Audin and the first guides were issued 1836 and 1838 without any illustrations. Audin also produced (at least) one Rhine panorama map (see section B), circa 1828. In France there was just as much interest in the River Rhine as in Britain or Germany. Although only published in 1842 by 1851, only nine years later, the Eighth Edition (as shown here) was already being offered.

BOOK title
MANUEL DU VOYAGEUR SUR LES BORDS DU RHIN Itineraire artistique, pittoresque et historique, comprenant la description des deux rives du Rhin de Mayence a Bale; des villes, villages, hameaux, bourgs et chateaux que decouvre le voyageur a bord du bateau a vapeur; d'amples notices sur Mayences, Cologne, Coblentz, Bonn, Francfort, etc.; de longs details sur les ruines romaines, teutoniques et du moyen age; des promenades de Manheim dans la Baviere rhenane, dans la Hesse, dans la vallee de la Nahe; de Heidelberg, par la Bergstrasse, a Darmstadt, au Taunus; de Cologne a Aix-la-Chapelle; une visite aux bains de Wiesbade, de Schwalbach, d'Ems; la description complete de Bade, de ses bains et de ses environs, de la vallee de la Murg et de la Foret-Noire; l'indication des hotels, des frais de sejour dans les villes et aux bains, des messageries, bateaux a vapeur; traduit du Hand-Book de Murray, et revu d'apres Schreiber, Gray, Fearnside et John Watts; nouvelle edition, considerablement augmentee par Richard. With spine title Guide Sur les Bords du Rhin  - Paris – L Maison.

I am offering a copy of the 8th edition dated 1851.

All editions published L. Maison, Paris 
1842: VII/518 pp. and 4 steel engravings with one folded map.
1844: (x)/700 pp. and 4 steel engravings with one folded map.
1845: XXXIVI/483 pp. and 4 steel engravings with one folded map.
1846: VI/700 pp. and 4 steel engravings with one folded map.
1849: (x)/(x) pp. and 4 steel engravings with one folded map.
This edition 1851: XLIVI/618 pp. and 4 steel engravings with one folded map. Final section of title removed, traduit du Hand-Book de Murray, ... augmentee par Richard and replaced by chemin de fer. Orné dúne belle carte routie´re, Huitiéme E´dition entiérement refondue par Richard.                                                                                          Schmitt 198.

The plates show Bad Ems and important buildings; the map shows the course of the Rhine (from Schaffhausen to the sea) as well as the Mosel (Coblentz to Trier). Map shows only the banks of the river in any detail.

Map title
Title panel (Ed) : Cours du Rhin de Schaffouse jusqu´ a` son embouchure dans la mer du nord. et de la Moselle depuis son embouchure jusqu á Treves. Imprint: Chez MAISON: Libraire Editr Successeur de AUDIN, 3 Rue Christine. Signature (AeOS): Gravé par Lale, rue de Foin St Jaques, 8.  Single sheet folded and enclosed in pocket at back of book is actually five maps with total area of 550 x 400 mm with piano-key border.

 Map deatail

AA. 5. Hendschel  1845

The complete work is a book together with a collection of maps and city plans. The 98 pp. text includes Einleitung (1 – 28); alphabetical gazetteeer of sights (33 – 77); and times and prices of steamer trips and railways on the Rhine or connecting services.

The work offered has an ornate title page: Topographisches Rhein-Panorama von Schaffhausen bis zur Nordsee. Title page continues: … und 27 genauen Städteplänen. Gezeichnet von U Hendschel – Verfasser der grossen Postkarte von Deutschland – gestochen von W. Haase. The publisher’s imprint is: Frankfurt am Main 1845. Verlegt von Karl Jügel.

Cover: Topographisches Rhein-Panorama von U Hendschel. Folds into publisher’s purple cloth boards with gilt title. Reverse has attractive view of a Rhine steamer in gilt. Original ties still present.

Map title

The larger maps are:
Topographisches Rhein-Panorama von Mainz bis zur Nord-See ….
Karte der Belgischen Eisenbahnen                                                         220 x 440 mm
Die Mosel von Coblenz bis Trier ….                                                         480 x 180 mm
Das Ahrthal ….                                                                                         105 x 180 mm
Das Nah- und Alsenz-Thal                                                                       170 x 100 mm
Post Roads [Darmstadt – Strasburg]                                                       170 x 100 mm
Topographisches Rhein-panorama von Mainz bis zur Schweiz ….
There are 25 town and city plans on separate pages: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, den Haag, Utrecht, Antwerpen, Brüssel, Düsseldorf, Elberfeld, Barmen, Aachen, Cöln, Bonn, Neuwied, Coblenz, Wiesbaden, Mainz, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Mannheim, Schwetzingen, Carlsruhe, Freiburg, Baden, Strassburg und Basel. A plan of Trier is included as an insert on the Mosel map.

There are two Rhine panorama maps.
1. Title, signatures and imprint at top right: Topographisches RHEIN-PANORAMA von Holland bis Schaffhausen und dem Bodensee. Nach den besten Quellen bearbeitet von U. Hendschel, gestochen von Wilhelm Hase. Frankfurt bey Carl Jügel.
Top section 310 x 370 mm with main section 170 wide by 890 mm length, approx. total length 1200 mm.
Includes inset Explanation of the signs; 2 inset maps of Postt roads; inset map of route Elberfeld bis Iserlohn u. Arnsberg; inset map of Aaachen-Köln; and two further Post Roads maps are included within the map (but without separate borders).

2. Title (but no signatures or imprint) at top right: TOPOGRAPHISCHES RHEIN-PANORAMA Zweite Section von Mainz bis zur Schweiz (Route Mainz – Strasburg). 
Top section 180 x 750 mm with lower section 300 x 355 mm wide. Includes inset map of Boden See 100 x 160 mm and a Post Roads map (south and east of Strasburg-Basel) without separate border.

Maps are interesting as they show all the surrounding area.

Cover (horizontal) 135 x 240 mm.

The work was also issued for English-speaking tourists:

Topographical Panorama of the Rhine from Schaffhausen to the north sea. Laid down on a large scale, with special maps of the greater part of Holland and Belgium as also of the environs of the lake of Constance, of the Moselle, Ahr, Nahe.
Frankfort on the Maine Charles Jugel 1845. 27 accurate plans of towns. Drawn by U.Hendschel, author of the large post-map of Germany engraved by W. Haase. Together with an historical introduction by Edward Duller and explanatory Notices for Travellers on the most interesting Towns.


Plans of Cologne and Aachen

 One of the many maps

AA. 6. Guinot, Eugène  1847

Book title
Les bords du Rhin.
Book by Eugène Guinot published in Paris by Furne & Bourdin. 1847.

Map title
  1. CARTE des Bords du Rhin, de Coblenz; á son embouchure, with imprint/signature: dressée et Gravée PAR P. TARDIEU – Publié par Furne et E. Bourdin.
  2. CARTE des Bords du Rhin, de Constance à Coblentz, with imprint/signature: dressée et Gravée PAR P. TARDIEU – Publié par Furne et E. Bourdin. Railway only shown as far as Bonn and Coblentz below the border.

Size 230 x 130 mm each.

First edition, fine bound copy. With beautiful views of Bacharach, Baden, Basel, Braubach, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Cologne, Constance, Mainz und Strasbourg, engraved by Doherty, Nyon, Outhwaite and de Villiers after Champin, Chapuy, Noel and Sandoz as well as 2 maps of the course of the Rhine.
The first map has also been seen (loose) with further signature/imprint bottom right: Imp. de Lemercier. (Illustrated.) 
Both maphalves only show the names of towns and villages along the banks of the river in any detail.                                                                                       Schmitt 89.

Map one with imprint

View of Cologne

AA. 7. Dampfschifffahrt Fahrplan   1894

Cover title

Rhein-Dampfschiffahrt – Kölnische & Düsseldorfer Gesellschaft. Printer’s signature: Buchdr. u. Lith. v. M. DuMont-Schauberg, Köln. The timetable is dated on front cover: Fahrplan vom 10. Mai 1894. Illustrated on front with scene of Rhine steamer watched by river nymphs from the rushes and on back cover with scene of travellers enjoying a break at a ruin above the river. The second scene is signed: W. Redeligx, gez. and he/she presumably did both views.

This timetable is representative for the many that must have been in circulation at the time. It is interesting both for its rarity, as many timetables were discarded at the end of the year, and for its attractiveness. The printed illustrations are pleasing and the map, with river straightened out, is reminiscent of today's strip maps in any road atlas.

Map title
Der Rhein von Mainz bis Köln. Rhine map in two columns each approx. 40 mm wide and 140 mm long. Towns along route coloured red to show stops for embarking and disembarking (Brücken-Station). 

Sheet when opened is 360 mm long and 150 mm in height, folding into four panels (i.e. each "page" is 90 x 150 mm). Printed on both sides forming an eight-page leaflet. Two pages of times, two pages of tariffs, one page conditions and added information, map page, front and back covers.

Not in Flüsse im Herzen Europas
Not in Sattler, Rheinpanoramen
Holzhäuser Der Rhein im Panorama 

 Front/Back cover

Rhine River

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